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Bull market is back… Another wave of hacker attacks starts again?
The picture from COINDESK related reports On Aug. 2, Ethereum Classic Labs (ETC Labs) made an important announcement on ETC blockchain. ETC Labs said due to network attack, Ethereum Classic suffered a reorganization on August 1st. This has been the second attack on the Ethereum Classic Network this year. Did renting-power cause the problem again? In this ETC incident, one of the miners mined a large number of blocks offline. When the miner went online, due to its high computing power, and some versions of mining software did not support large-scale blockchain mergers, the consensus failed. Therefore, the entire network was out of sync, which produced an effect similar to a 51% attack. Finally, it caused the reorganization of 3693 blocks, starting at 10904147. The deposit and withdrawal between the exchanges and mining pools had to be suspended for troubleshooting during this period. Media report shows that the blockchain reorganization may be caused by a miner (or a mining pool) disconnected during mining. Although it has been restored to normal after 15 hours of repair, it does reflect the vulnerability of the Proof of Work (PoW) network: once the computing power of the network is insufficient, the performance of one single mining pool can affect the entire network, which is neither distributed nor secure for the blockchain. Neither does it have efficiency. At present, most consensus algorithms of blockchains are using PoW, which has been adopted over 10 years. In PoW, each miner solves a hashing problem. The probability to solve the problem successfully is proportional to the ratio of the miner’s hash power to the total hash power of mainnet. Although PoW has been running for a long time, the attack model against PoW is very straightforward to understand, and has attracted people’s attention for a long time: such an attack, also known as double-spending attack, may happen when an attacker possesses 51% of the overall network hash power. The attacker can roll back any blocks in the blockchain by creating a longer and more difficult chain and as a result, modify the transaction information. Since hash power can be rented to launch attacks, some top 30 projects have suffered from such attacks. In addition to this interference, the main attack method is through the computing power market such as Nice Hash. Hackers can rent hashpower to facilitate their attacks, which allows the computing power to rise rapidly in a short time and rewrite information. In January of this year, the Ethereum Classic was attacked once, and it was also the case that hackers can migrate computing power from the fiercely competitive Bitcoin and Ethereum, and use it to attack smaller projects, such as ETH Classic. The picture shows the cost of attacking ETH Classic. It can be seen that it costs only $6,634 to attack ETH Classic for one hour. The security of one network is no longer limited by whether miners within the main net take more than 51% of the total hash power, rather it is determined by whether the benevolent (non-hackers) miners take more than 51% of the total hash power from the pool of projects that use similar consensus algorithm. For example, the hash power of Ethereum is 176 TH/s and that of Ethereum Classic is 9 TH/s. In this way, if one diverts some hash power from Ethereum (176 TH/s) to Ethereum Classic, then one can easily launch a double-spending attack to Ethereum Classic. The hash power ratio for this attack between the two projects is 9/176 = 5.2%, which is a tiny number. https://preview.redd.it/qj57vgmgb9f51.png?width=699&format=png&auto=webp&s=39c1efc3645f268dbf1c73e1b373d532d5461006 As one of the top 30 blockchain projects, Ethereum Classic has been attacked several times. Therefore, those small and medium-sized projects with low hash power and up-and-coming future projects are facing great potential risks. This is the reason that many emerging public chain projects abandon PoW and adopt PoS. Proof of Stake (PoS) can prevent 51% attack but has problems of its own In addition to PoW consensus, another well-adopted consensus algorithm is Proof of Stake (PoS). The fundamental concept is that the one who holds more tokens has the right to create the blocks. This is similar to shareholders in the stock market. The token holders also have the opportunities to get rewards. The advantages of PoS are: (i) the algorithm avoids wasting energy like that in PoW calculation; and (ii) its design determines that the PoS will not be subjected to 51% hash power attack since the algorithm requires the miner to possess tokens in order to modify the ledger. In this way, 51% attack becomes costly and meaningless. https://preview.redd.it/rf65o1vhb9f51.png?width=685&format=png&auto=webp&s=9d7a9f9dab6ce823a224e91afa9d116310cf27e1 In terms of disadvantages, nodes face the problem of accessibility. PoS requires a permission to enter the network and nodes cannot enter and exit freely and thus lacks openness. It can easily be forked. In the long run, the algorithm is short of decentralization, and leads to the Matthew effect of accumulated advantages whereby miners with more tokens will receive more rewards and perpetuate the cycle. More importantly, the current PoS consensus has not been verified for long-term reliability. Whether it can be as stable as the PoW system is yet to be verified. For some of the PoW public chains that are already launched, if they want to switch consensus, they need to do hard fork, which divides communities and carries out a long consensus upgrade and through which Ethereum is undergoing. Is there a safer and better solution? QuarkChain Provide THE Solution: High TPS Protection + PoSW Consensus For new-born projects, and some small or medium-sized projects, they all are facing the problem of power attack. For PoW-based chains, there are always some chains with lower hash power than others (ETC vs. ETH, BCH vs BTC), and thus the risk of attack is increased. In addition, the interoperability among the chains, such as cross-chain operation, is also a problem. In response, QuarkChain has designed a series of mechanisms to solve this problem. This can be summed up as a two-layer structure with a calculation power allocation and Proof of Staked Work (PoSW) consensus. First of all, there is a layer of sharding, which can be considered as some parallel chains. Each sharding chain handles the transactions relatively independently. Such design forms the basis to ensure the performance of the entire system. To avoid security issues caused by the dilution of the hash power, we also have a root chain. The blocks of the root chain do not contain transactions, but are responsible for verifying the transactions of each shard. Relying on the hash power distribution algorithm, the hash power of the root chain will always account for 51% of the net. Each shard, on the other hand, packages their transactions according to their own consensus and transaction models. Moreover, QuarkChain relies on flexibility that allows each shard to have different consensus and transaction models. Someone who wants to launch a double-spending attack on a shard that is already contained in the root chain must attack the block on the root chain, which requires calling the 51% hash power of the root chain. That is, if there are vertical field projects that open new shards on QuarkChain, even with insufficient hash power, an attacker must first attack the root chain if he or she wants to attack a new shard. The root chain has maintained more than 51% of the network’s hash power, which makes the attack very difficult. https://preview.redd.it/rxpohs7jb9f51.png?width=674&format=png&auto=webp&s=e2df1307a1753542472f2b6da88e7a4022b30884 As illustrated in the diagram, if the attacker wants to attack the QuarkChain network, one would need to attack the shard and the root chain simultaneously. PoW has achieved a high level of decentralization and has been verified for its stability for a long time. Combining PoW with the staking capability for PoS would make use of the advantages of both consensus mechanisms. That is what QuarkChain’s PoSW achieves exactly. PoSW, which is Proof of Staked Work, is exclusively developed by QuarkChain and runs on shards. PoSW allows miners to enjoy the benefits of lower mining difficulty by staking original tokens (currently it’s 20 times lower). Conversely, if someone malicious with a high hash power and does not stake tokens on QuarkChain, he will be punishable by receiving 20 times the difficulty of the hash power, which increases the cost of attack. If the attacker stakes tokens in order to reduce the cost of attack, he/she needs to stake the corresponding amount of tokens, which may cost even more. Thus, the whole network is more secure. Taking Ethereum Classics (ETC) as an example, if ETC uses the PoSW consensus, if there was another double-spending attack similar to the one in January, the attacker will need at least 110Th/s hash power or 650320 ETC (worth $3.2 million, and 8 TH/s hash power) to create this attack, which is far greater than the cost of the current attack on the network (8Th/s hash power) and revenue (219500 ETC). Relying on multiple sets of security mechanisms, QuarkChain ensures its own security, while providing security for new shards and small and medium-sized projects. Its high level of flexibility also allows the projects to support different types of ledger models, transaction models, virtual machines, and token economics. Such great degrees of security and flexibility will facilitate the blockchain ecosystem to accelerate growth of innovative blockchain applications. Learn more about QuarkChain Website https://www.quarkchain.io Telegram https://t.me/quarkchainio Twitter https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain Medium https://medium.com/quarkchain-official Reddit https://www.reddit.com/quarkchainio/ Community https://community.quarkchain.io/
A brief educational program for those who do not follow the update of the project of Vitalik Buterin. Ethereum has long been in need of updating, and the main problem of the network is scalability: the blockchain is overloaded, transactions are slowing down, and the cost of “gas” (transaction fees) is growing. If you do not update the consensus algorithm, then the network will someday cease to be operational. To avoid this, developers have been working for several years on moving the network from the PoW algorithm to state 2.0, running on PoS. This should make the network more scalable, faster and cheaper. In December last year, the first upgrade phase, Istanbul, was implemented in the network, and in April of this year, the Topaz test network with the possibility of staking was launched - the first users already earned 1%. In the PoS algorithm that Ethereum switches to, there is no mining, and validation occurs due to the delegation of user network coins to the masternodes. For the duration of the delegation, these coins are frozen, and for providing their funds for block validation, users receive a portion of the reward. This is staking - such a crypto-analogue of a bank deposit. There are several types of staking: with income from dividends or masternodes, but not the device’s power, as in PoW algorithms, but the number of miner coins is important in all of them. The more coins, the higher the income. For crypto investors, staking is an opportunity to receive passive income from blocked coins. It is assumed that the launch of staking:
Will make ETH mining more affordable, but less resource intensive;
Will make the network more secure and secure - attacks will become too expensive;
Will create an entirely new sector of steak infrastructure around the platform;
Provides increased scalability, which will create the opportunity for wider implementation of DeFi protocols;
And, most importantly, it will show that Ethereum is a developing project.
The first payments to stakeholders will be one to two years after the launch of the update
The minimum validator steak will be 32 ETN (≈$6092 for today). This is the minimum number of coins that an ETH holder must freeze in order to qualify for payments. Another prerequisite is not to disconnect your wallet from the network. If the user disconnects and goes into automatic mode, he loses his daily income. If at some point the steak drops below 16 ETH, the user will be deprived of the right to be a validator. The Ethereum network has to go through many more important stages before coin holders can make money on its storage. Collin Myers, the leader of the product strategy at the startup of the Ethereum developer ConsenSys, said that the genesis block of the new network will not be mined until the total amount of frozen funds reaches 524,000 ETN ($99.76 million at the time of publication). So many coins should be kept by 16,375 validators with a minimum deposit of 32 ETN. Until this moment, none of them will receive a percentage profit. Myers noted that this event is not tied to a clear time and depends on the activity of the community. All validators will have to freeze a rather significant amount for an indefinite period in the new network without confidence in the growth of the coin rate. It’s hard to say how many people there are. The developers believe that it will take 12−18 or even 24 months. According to the latest ConsenSys Codefi report, more than 65% of the 300 ETH owners surveyed plan to use the staking opportunity. This sample, of course, is not representative, but it can be assumed that most major coin holders will still be willing to take a chance.
How much can you earn on Ethereum staking
Developers have been arguing for a long time about what profitability should be among the validators of the Ethereum 2.0 network. The economic model of the network maintains an inflation rate below 1% and dynamically adjusts the reward scale for validators. The difficulty is not to overpay, but not to pay too little. Profitability will be variable, as it depends on the number and size of steaks, as well as other parameters. The fewer frozen coins and validators, the higher the yield, and vice versa. This is an easy way to motivate users to freeze ETN. According to the October calculations of Collin Myers, after the launch of Ethereum 2.0, validators will be able to receive from 4.6% to 10.3% per annum as a reward for their steak. At the summit, he clarified that the first time after the launch of the Genesis block, it can even reach 20.3%. But as the number of steaks grows, profitability will decline. So, with five million steaks, it drops to about 6.6%. The above numbers are not net returns. They do not include equipment and electricity costs. According to Myers, after the Genesis block, the costs of maintaining the validator node will be about 4.75% of the remuneration. They will continue to increase as the number of blocked coins increases, and with a five millionth steak, they will grow to about 14.7%. Myers emphasized that profitability will be higher for those who will work on their own equipment, rather than relying on cloud services. The latter, according to his calculations, at current prices can bring a loss of up to minus 15% per year. This, he believes, promotes true decentralization. At the end of April, Vitalik Buterin said that validators will be able to earn 5% per annum with a minimum stake of 32 ETH - 1.6 ETH per year, or $ 304 at the time of publication. However, given the cost of freezing funds, the real return will be at 0.8%.
How to calculate profitability from ETN staking
The easiest way to calculate the estimated return for Ethereum staking is to use a special calculator. For example, from the online services EthereumPrice or Stakingrewards. The service takes into account the latest indicators of network profitability, as well as additional characteristics: the time of operation of a node in the network, the price of a coin, the share of blocked ETNs and so on. Depending on these values, the profit of the validator can vary greatly. For example, you block 32 ETNs at today's coin price - $190, 1% of the coins are blocked, and the node works 99% of the time. According to the EthereumPrice calculator, in this case your yield will be 14.25% per annum, or 4.56 ETH. Validator earnings from the example above for 10 years according to EthereumPrice. If to change the data, you have the same steak, but the proportion of blocked coins is 10%. Now your annual yield is only 4.51%, or 1.44 ETH. Validator earnings from the second example over 10 years according to EthereumPrice. It is important that this is profitability excluding expenses. Real returns will be significantly lower and in the second case may be negative. In addition, you must consider the fluctuation of the course. Even with a yield of 14% per annum in ETN, dollar-denominated returns may be negative in a bear market.
When will the transition to Ethereum 2.0 start
Ben Edgington from Teku, the operator of Ethereum 2.0, at the last summit said that the transition to PoS could be launched in July this year. These deadlines, if there are no new delays, were also mentioned by experts of the BitMEX crypto exchange in their recent report on the transition of the Ethereum ecosystem to stage 2.0. However, on May 12, Vitalik Buterin denied the possibility of launching Ethereum 2.0 in July. The network is not yet ready and is unlikely to be launched before the end of the year. July 30 marks the 5th anniversary of the launch of Ethereum. Unfortunately, it seems that it will not be possible to start the update for the anniversary again. Full deployment of updates will consist of several stages. Phase 0. Beacon chain. The "zero" phase, which can be launched in July this year. In fact, it will only be a network test and PoS testing without economic activity, but it will use new ETN coins and the possibility of staking will appear. The "zero" phase will test the first layer of Ethereum 2.0 architecture - Lighthouse. This is the Ethereum 2.0 client in Rust, developed back in 2018. Phase 1. Sharding - rejection of full nodes in favor of load balancing between all network nodes (shards). This should increase network bandwidth and solve the scalability problem. This is the first full phase of Ethereum 2.0. It will initially be deployed with 64 shards. It is because of sharding that the transition of a network to a new state is so complicated - existing smart contracts cannot be transferred to a new network. Therefore, at first, perhaps several years, both networks will exist simultaneously. Phase 2. State execution. In this phase, various applications will work, and it will be possible to conclude smart contracts. This is a full-fledged working Ethereum 2.0 network. After the second phase, two networks will work in parallel - Ethereum and Ethereum 2.0. Coin holders will be able to transfer ETN from the first to the second without the ability to transfer them back. To stimulate network support, coin emissions in both networks will increase until they merge. Read more about the phases of transition to state 2.0 in the aforementioned BitMEX report.
How the upgrade to Ethereum 2.0 will affect the staking market and coin price
The transition of the second largest coin to PoS will dramatically increase the stake in the market. The deposit in 32 ETH is too large for most users. Therefore, we should expect an increase in offers for staking from the exchanges. So, the launch of such a service in November was announced by the largest Swiss crypto exchange Bitcoin Suisse. She will not have a minimum deposit, and the commission will be 15%. According to October estimates by Binance Research analysts, the transition of Ethereum to stage 2.0 can double the price of a coin and the stake of staking in the market, and it will also make ETH the most popular currency on the PoS algorithm. Adam Cochran, partner at MetaCartel Ventures DAO and developer of DuckDuckGo, argued in his blog that Ethereum's transition to state 2.0 would be the “biggest event” of the cryptocurrency market. He believes that a 3–5% return will attract the capital of large investors, and fear of lost profit (FOMO) among retail investors will push them to actively buy coins. The planned coin burning mechanism for each transaction will reduce the potential oversupply. However, BitMEX experts in the report mentioned above believe that updating the network will not be as important an event as it seems to many, and will not have a significant impact on the coin rate and the staking market. Initially, this will be more likely to test the PoS system, rather than a full-fledged network. There will be no economic activity and smart contracts, and interest for a steak will not be paid immediately. Therefore, most of the economic activity will continue to be concluded in the original Ethereum network, which will work in parallel with the new one. Analysts of the exchange emphasized that due to the addition of staking, the first time (short, in their opinion) a large number of ETNs will be blocked on the network. Most likely, this will limit the supply of coins and lead to higher prices. However, this can also release some of the ETNs blocked in smart contracts, and then the price will not rise. Moreover, the authors of the document are not sure that the demand for coins will be long-term and stable. For this to happen, PoS and sharding must prove that they work stably and provide the benefits for which the update was started. But, if this happens, the network is waiting for a wave of coins from the developers of smart contracts and DeFi protocols. In any case, quick changes should not be expected. A full transition to Ethereum 2.0 will take years and won’t be smooth - network failures are inevitable. We also believe that we should not rely on Ethereum staking as another panacea for all the problems of the coin and the market. Most likely, the transition of the network to PoS will not have a significant impact on the staking market, but may positively affect the price of the coin. However, relying on the ETN rally in anticipation of this is too optimistic. Subscribe to our Telegram channel
The One Thing EVERYONE Must Know About the Dev Funding Plan: IT'S COMPLETELY FREE.
sigh I get so tired of having to stop working to put out a post explaining issues. If anyone else wants to join in I could use help. (actually I've seen Jonald F. do this before too, so thanks JF!) Things are bad when even developers don't understand what's going on. So I'll try to clearly explain an important point on the Dev Funding Plan (DFP from now on) for the community: it's completely free. Yet we still get panicked posts saying Please Save Us from the TAX!!! Somebody Help! You may be for or against the DFP, but either way please at least understand what you're forming an opinion on. Let's start from the beginning. We know Bitcoin works on blocks and block coin rewards. The block reward, which started at 50 coins per block, and cuts in half approximately every 4 years, serves two purposes: it's a fair way to bring coins into circulation, but more importantly it provides security for the network. For simplicity, please think of "security" as being measured in power bars. When the network first started, with just Satoshi and Hal Finney, there was 1 power bar. This power bar was made up of the electricity their combined computer hardware used to find blocks. They were the first miners. Bitcoin uses a difficulty level to adjust how hard or easy it is to find blocks. This level is important for a key reason: we want the inflation rate of coins (how fast they come into circulation) to stay about the same, regardless how many miners (computing power) suddenly comes online. If the difficulty is set at super easy, but suddenly a super computer comes online that computer can gobble up thousands of coins in minutes if not seconds, creating massive rapid inflation. So the first thing to understand is that due to the Difficulty Level Adjustment the rate of coins coming into circulation will always stay about the same, regardless how many miners join or leave the network. Getting back to power bars. So the point of Bitcoin is there is no center, no fixed authority. The problem is we still need a decision made about which chain is valid. This is where proof-of-work comes in. Satoshi's fairly brilliant solution to a consensus decision, with no leader, was to simply look for the longest chain (technically the chain with most hashing work). The reasoning was: as there are far more ordinary people than there are governments and dictators a Bitcoin supported by the all the world's people should always be able to muster more hashrate than even rich governments. So Bitcoin began and people saw the brilliance: even with a weak power bar level of 1 (a couple computers), Bitcoin was safe from 51% attacks and attacking govs competing for control of the chain because a super low hashrate meant Bitcoin wasn't popular and govs wouldn't bother paying attention. By the time Bitcoin was big enough for govs to worry about attacking it should also have so many participants the power bar level would be far higher, providing strong defense. Let's say the ideal power bar level is 50,000. At this level no government on earth has enough resources to beat the grassroots network. We hear people brag about how much security BTC has. However, the marketcap for all of BTC is about $160B. Countries like the U.S. and China have GDP measured in many trillions; a trillion is 1,000 billion. Does 160B really seem untouchable? For numeric comparison the main U.S. federal food assistance program cost the government $70B in 2016, representing about 2% of the budget. So the entirety of the BTC market cap is about twice the size of one welfare program, representing 2% of the overall budget. Where should we place the current security power bars if we want guaranteed safety from a determined U.S. gov? If 50,000 is guaranteed safe we're far from it. I'd say BTC is more like 5,000. That's still pretty decent. Of course, BCH split from BTC... and didn't carry over all the miners and accompanying security. That's not an immediate concern because if BTC isn't on government's radar yet BCH sure isn't. However, that doesn't mean BCH doesn't need security from hostile forces. It's still a valuable network and needs defenses. Where would we put power bars for BCH? If BTC is 5,000 and BCH only has 3% of that hashrate then BCH has just 150. That's it. How the Developer Funding Plan Works Back to the DFP. What this says is as a community we agree to break off a piece of the block reward and instead of giving 100% to miners we give a small percent to developers. If each block is 10 coins and the price is $300 then winning a block means winning $3,000. Of course that's not all profit because miners have electricity and other expenses to pay before calculating profit. So if we reduce the portion of the miner reward by 10% so they get just 9 coins per block yet the price stays the same what happens? It means miners receive $2,700 for the same effort. We've just made it more expensive to mine BCH from the point of view of miners. What would any miner then rationally do? Seek profitability elsewhere if available. Suddenly BTC SHA256 hashing looks slightly more attractive so they'll go there. Hashrate leaves BCH and goes to BTC, but the key important point is BOTH chains have a difficulty adjustment algorithm which adjusts to account for rising or lowering miners overall, which keeps the coin inflation rate steady. This means BTC total hashrate rises (more miners compete for BTC) and its Difficulty Level rises accordingly, so the same rate of BTC pumps out; on BCH total hashrate falls (less miners compete for BCH) and its Difficulty falls, so the same rate of BCH pumps out. Inflation remains about the same on both coins so the price of both coins doesn't change any, beyond what it normally does based on news/events etc. So what difference is there? The difference is total network security. Hashrate totals have changed. BTC gains more miner securing hashrate while BCH loses it. So BTC goes from 5,000 to say 5,100 power bars. BCH goes from about 150 to 140. Does any of that matter in the grand scheme of things? Not in the slightest. Part of the reason is due to our emergency circumstances with BCH we had to rework our security model. Our primary defense is an idea I came up with, which BitcoinABC implemented, saying it's not sheer hashpower that dictates what chain we follow. We won't replace a chain we're working on if a new one suddenly appears if it means changing more than 10 blocks deep of history. This prevents all the threatening hashrate hanging over our heads from mining a secret chain and creating havoc unleashing it causing 10+ confimed txs to be undone, while exchanges, gambling sites etc. have long since paid out real world money. Switching $6M worth of block rewards from mining to devs just means we lose a bit of hashrate security, while we gain those funds for development. Nothing more. Nobody holding BCH pays in the form of inflation or any other way. It costs literally NOTHING BECAUSE The block reward is ALREADY ALLOCATED. It will EITHER go 100% to mining security if we do nothing, or go to both miners and devs if the plan is put into effect. Hopefully this helps. :) TL;DR: we switch security which we don't really need, for developer funding which we do.
Buy Bitcoin in Dubai with Cash Your Crypto Cashpoint In Dubai
How to buy Bitcoin in Dubai?
You can buy bitcoin in Dubai at Coinsfera with cash, credit card, and bank transfer. Coinsfera is the crypto currency cashpoint where you can Buy & Sell more than 500 cryptocurrencies with cash in seconds.
Make an appointment with Coinsfera staff via phone, Whatsapp or Telegram.
Visit our Bitcoinshop in Dubai conveniently located at Baniyas Square-14th Rd – Dubai – United Arab Emirates.
Pay with cash (Dirham or US Dollars) and get your Bitcoin.
One of the methods is cryptocurrency exchanges but it is not so easy for the unexperienced users. First, you will need to create an account on one of the major exchanges, confirm your identity, connect a credit card and transfer money, and only then you will be able to proceed with buying and selling bitcoin. The whole process takes some time, unless, of course, the exchange is suffering from failures and you do not know how to do everything correctly.
First Bitcoin ATM in Bitcoin
In Dubai, there is also an ATM for buying BTC without identity verification. In Dubai, the first ATM was installed in 2019, allowing you to buy bitcoins without passing KYC. However, to withdraw fiat money, you will still need an identity card. Even though ATM is becoming more popular all over the world, security remains the main problem. This ATM was installed at the Rixos Premium Dubai JBR Wellness center in Dubai. The device allows you to purchase bitcoins for cash. However, you do not need to present your identity card or pass KYC. Nevertheless, although the purchase of bitcoin is made anonymously, users are unlikely to be able to maintain confidentiality and a high commission than traditional exchanges. To use cryptocurrency in the future, you will have to turn to the services of exchanges and wallets, most of which currently require verification of identity before performing operations. We offer one the easiest and the best way to purchase Bitcoin with cash. At Coinsfera, Transactions only take 10-15 minutes. Moreover, our friendly staff will provide you with full assistance in this case, if you have any difficulties or questions.
How to store bitcoin?
Bitcoins can be stored in two types of digital wallets: a hot wallet or a cold wallet. With a burning wallet, transactions are faster, while a cold wallet often includes additional security measures that help keep your assets safe, but also take longer.
With the help of a hot wallet, bitcoin is stored on an exchange and is accessible via an app or a computer browser on the Internet. Even though the blockchain technology underlying bitcoin is even more secure than traditional electronic money transfers, bitcoin hot wallets are an attractive target for hackers.
The cold wallet is a small encrypted portable device that allows you to download and transfer Bitcoins. Cold wallets can cost up to $100 but are considered much more secure than hot wallets. As a result, the choice remains for you which wallet to buy hot or cold. But you can think about this option in advance with the help of our qualified team, which will proconsul everything and help you create a wallet.
How to invest bitcoin correctly?
There are two ways to invest bitcoin. If you like the idea of day trading, one option is to buy bitcoin now and then sell it when its value rises. This method is popular since most users try to make a profit immediately. Sometimes this type of trade brings a good income, and sometimes insignificant. The second way is if you have analyzed the cryptocurrency market, especially the bitcoin market, and see it as the future of the digital currency, then you are investing in bitcoin. In other words, by purchasing it and investing your money. But this method is long compared to the first, which is a disadvantage.
Why should you buy bitcoin in Dubai?
The expansion of the use of cryptocurrencies, including at the state level(for example, the UAE);
Large online stores today accept bitcoin, which allows the currency to develop further at a rapid pace;
Security (privacy). You do not use your real name for transaction. Instead, you have a unique address;
The blockchain. The entire Bitcoin system depends on the blockchain. Each computer running Bitcoin software stores its copy of the complete transaction record stored in blocks. As transactions are received, the system creates a new block;
The volatility. In 2017, the price of bitcoin jumped sharply, and the value of the cryptocurrency increased twenty times. No other asset, apart from stocks, can make such a profit. A year later, the bitcoin exchange rate fell, but in 2019 it began to recover;
The complexity of calculating blocks leads to an increase in the value of the asset. The price of bitcoin is growing, due to the complexity of calculating blocks;
Independence and decentralization. This means that they are not attached to any country or government authority, which allows cryptocurrency owners to make transactions without government supervision. On the one hand, this is an advantage, but on the other hand, you cannot to cancel unauthorized transactions.
A positive outlook for cryptocurrencies, which is the basis for the fact that investments in BTC will bring a good income.
A HISTORY OF HUOBI Huobi was founded in 2013 by their current CEO and chairman, Leon Li. Li’s background includes having attended Tshingua University, specializing in Automation. Before starting the Huobi Group, Li spent time as a computer engineer at Oracle. In December of 2013, Huobi was named as the largest digital asset exchange operating in China. 2017 saw Huobi extend their limbs into Korea, Singapore, and Japan. Currently, Huobi has headquarters of various financial sectors based in: Singapore; South Korea; Japan; Australia; Indonesia; Russia; Argentina; Thailand; and China. The company has strived to give customers not only a great exchange, but a great resource for any service one may need. Despite the many difficulties faced with Chinese government in regards to cryptocurrency laws, Huobi has managed to adapt to the changes and thrive globally, eventually branching off into various sectors including venture capital, a cryptocurrency wallet project, and a division dedicated to working with mining pools. HUOBI'S PLATFORM spot trading : Huobi offers several different platforms to serve any customer’s needs. For starters, Huobi offers a standard spot trading platform that operates similarly to many other spot trading platforms in the industry. The platform features a multi-timeframe chart, a depth chart, and integration with TradingView (including their tools). Customers are able to view the order book and the asset trading history, as well as their own personal order history. Limit orders, Market orders, and Stop-Limit orders are all available options for traders. margin trading : For the trader that prefers to trade with a little more volume or risk, Huobi offers a Margin trading platform. Customers can apply for loans through Huobi to trade a greater quantity of cryptocurrencies and profit from the price spread. The original loan must be paid back, and accounts can be liquidated if the risk ratio falls below 110% (calculated as: [(Loaned Amount + Tradable Balance) Total Asset] / [(Interest Payable + Loaned Amount)] x 100%.) Traders can margin trade with Bitcoin; Ethereum; XRP; Litecoin; Bitcoin Cash; and EOS. These assets can be traded with USDT or BTC. futures trading : Huobi also offers a Futures trading platform. While margin trading can be risky, trading contracts is said to be very high-risk. With that being said, Huobi offers Weekly, Bi-Weekly, and Quarterly contracts in Bitcoin; Ethereum Classic; Ethereum; EOS; Litecoin; Bitcoin Cash; XRP; TRX; and Bitcoin SV. OTC(P2P) - The OTC, or over-the-counter, section of Huobi offers potential buyers and sellers a way to move large quantities of coins without exposure to the fickle exchange market. Certified merchants can register here, and slippage can be minimized by matching buyers and sellers directly instead of creating market orders. HUOBI APPS While you do have the online trading interface, Huobi does have computer programs and mobile apps that you can use. I found that the PC programmes were more functional as they did not have to rely on the PC browser and were hence much faster. They also have better charting and you are in more control of your trading parameters. These programs are available on Windows and Mac devices. However, if you are a trader that is always on the go, that is where the Huobi mobile apps come in. These were developed for the main exchange but you can switch to the derivative markets on the futures and swaps platform. This was a pretty well designed application and you have one-touch ordering as well as some basic charting functionality. The app is available in iOS and Android and you can head on over to the respective app stores to get a sense of the feedback. EXCHANGE SECURITY Huobi operates a hot and cold wallet storage procedure. This means that they keep the vast amount of their coin holdings in an offline environment away from hackers. They then have a smaller percentage in “hot” wallets with multisig capability. They also operate a decentralized server structure around the world which can ensure uptime irrespective of whether one of the servers goes down. You can think of this as effective load balancing. Finally, they have anti DDoS measures in place. We all know that crypto exchanges are prime targets for Denial of Service attacks and it can be quite frustrating when these are perpetrated in peak market times. IS HUOBI TRUSTWORTHY? Huobi, like many exchanges in the space, has had, at one time, some shady history, but for the most part, has managed to maintain a clean reputation. Historically, Chinese exchanges have shown to operate in accordance with different standards, with many exchanges having to suffer at the will and whim of the Chinese government. Some of the controversy Huobi has seen in the past has been a result of this (particularly with the Chinese ban on ICO tokens). It should be noted that in 2017, the exchange did invest into “wealth-management products” using idle customer funds. This sort of activity shouldn’t be taken lightly. However, with that being said, the exchange continues to turn over a large amount of volume. For the most part, the exchange can be considered a trustworthy platform to trade popular and exotic cryptocurrencies. This does not mean it is entirely safe to store user funds on the exchange, as the exchange (or the user funds) can be susceptible to risk at any given moment. No matter how comfortable one may be with the internet, one should always remember that the internet is not as safe as many would like to believe. Huobi does have measures in place in the unfortunate event that an account is breached, and if verifiable, the customer may be able to retrieve lost funds. A unique feature offered on Huobi is their Official Media Authenticator. This essentially lets users enter the URL of a content channel to see if the channel is authentic. A feature like this, while seemingly simple, could save anyone from potentially losing their funds due to a scam or phishing website. HUOBI REVIEW VERDICT Huobi Global offers a signficant host of features to its users and has maintained its credibility over a long period of time. This is largely one of the main reasons it a ranked as a top 4 exchange by liquidity as its users trust their funds there. After establishing itself in Asia, Huobi is trying to branch out and take on other areas of the globe which is great news for Western traders. Additionally, the Huobi prime platform could provide some great opportunities for the exchange users moving forward. Huobi Website: https://www.huobi.com/topic/invited/?invite_code=q7g23 Huobi Indian Community: https://t.me/huobiglobalindia Huobi Global Community: https://t.me/huobiglobalofficial
Use of Blockchain Technologies in the Field of Labor
https://preview.redd.it/vvyaycga09g41.jpg?width=1275&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e26e7f5f125e3a7e068a1a29e05989eb1c33822e The issues of using blockchain technologies, conducting ICOs and the use of cryptocurrencies are relevant not only for the field of law, but also for political, economic, other sciences, and are also of interest to ordinary citizens. Labor law does not remain aloof from the development of technology, as well as globalization processes, which necessitates the conduct of relevant scientific research. For a short time, judicial practice is changing, the approaches of state bodies in matters of cryptocurrency transactions, their theft, seizure, etc. At the same time, electronic technologies are acquiring special significance in the field of labor law. Workflow experiments, discussions about the need to introduce workbooks, electronic sick-lists, and the work of remote workers — information technologies have already found application in all these areas. In addition, at the present time, given the globalization processes, there is a need to increase pay opportunities. It is no accident that in some countries the possibilities of a monetary form of remuneration have expanded by assuming, under certain conditions, remuneration in the currency of other states. Based on this provision, the question arises about the practical feasibility of using cryptocurrency workers as wages, as well as the use of blockchain technologies in the world of work. Blockchain is a technology of distributed databases (registries) based on a constantly renewed chain of records. The name Cryptocurrency, meaning “cryptocurrency”, appeared in Forbes magazine in 2011. However, cryptocurrencies themselves would not have been so widespread without a blockchain system that provides all the necessary elements for circulation. Cryptocurrency is a special kind of electronic means of payment. Strictly speaking, this is a mathematical code. It is called so because of the use of cryptographic elements in the circulation of this digital money, namely, an electronic signature. https://preview.redd.it/7s4qq1s949g41.jpg?width=877&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=2bdb9dbb0a4bde88e302047c55b7207e1f66d347
The popularity of cryptocurrencies is due to a number of factors that directly affect labor law.
Such electronic money is universal regardless of the place of work, the legal form of the employer or the citizenship of the employee. Cryptocurrencies are not tied to a particular state or bank. This decentralization is one of their main advantages, which encourages many countries to start using cryptographic currencies for international payments and as reserve currencies. Bitcoin operations are increasingly being conducted on global financial markets. In the future, this factor allows creating a single world labor market, where remuneration for labor will be paid in a single form and currency, without linking this money to specific countries and existing systems. This will significantly simplify emerging issues and difficulties in relations associated with employees located abroad. This eliminates the need for multiple transfers of funds and the exchange of one currency for another. From this point of view, I would like to draw attention to the main problems associated with the use of cryptocurrencies in remuneration. One of the most acute problems is associated with tax legislation. Incomes of employees are taxed, while the employer, as a tax agent, performs this function for the employee. A distinctive feature of all operations with cryptocurrencies is their anonymity and lack of control. All operations occur instantly since they are not controlled by anyone and are not delayed for checks. Accordingly, the tax authorities do not know the number of funds received by the employee for the performance of his labor function, cannot personify the taxpayer and his tax burden. Similarly, the employer and employee are able to evade the payment of taxes, which is a violation of the law. It is also important for the legislator to determine which form of labor remuneration should include cryptocurrencies. When assigned to cash, there are fewer problems with the payment and regulation of these funds, since in accordance with the above article, payments, in this case, can be made in full and the employer is not threatened with sanctions for violation of labor legislation. If you equate cryptocurrency payments to a non-monetary form of payment, then the employer has the right to pay in this way no more than 20% of the employee’s total salary per month. However, there is currently a variety of cryptocurrencies, some of which are notable for the instability and difficulty of selling by ordinary users. A wide range of cryptocurrencies at the same time can be both a plus and a minus in the issue of their use as a form of salary. The employer and employee can choose the most convenient currency for them to transfer funds. But such a variety can and can significantly interfere with the development of the institution of cryptocurrency payroll.
It should be noted that in many countries, judicial practice recognizes cryptocurrencies as property.
The largest online resources specializing in the purchase and sale of electronic means of payment, there are about 1,500 types of various cryptocurrencies. And this number will only increase over time, as large companies of completely different industries, often not even related to technology and innovation, create their own cryptocurrencies. Also, the difficulty in paying wages will be the instability of the cryptocurrency rate. Since one of the constituent parts of wages is salary, which means a fixed wage for an employee for performing labor (official) duties of a certain complexity for a calendar month without taking into account compensation, incentive, and social benefits. Accordingly, this component of wages cannot be changed according to the norms of labor legislation. And the cryptocurrency exchange rate for a given period of time is notable for its instability. In this case, it is necessary to specify in the employment contract with the employee the method of calculating his salary. The first way is to fix the number of wages in a specific number of cryptocurrency units, regardless of their value. This method is unlikely and quite complicated for both employers and workers themselves, and for control and tax authorities. A simpler way is to pay a salary in cryptocurrency with reference to a specific amount. It is important to take into account the fact that, regardless of the concept chosen by the employer, the employee can suffer the most, since jumps in the cryptocurrency rate are possible in both cases, and it is the employee’s turnover, sale or personal use of electronic funds that will fall. The position in which the employee will be paid in electronic currency only part of the salary, and the remaining funds will be in the format of the usual money for everyone, will not be completely clear. Therefore, a potential user of cryptocurrency funds and a potential participant in their turnover can, unexpectedly for themselves and all those around them, suffer enormous losses and get rich quite unexpectedly. The issue of using electronic money is of interest to employers in many countries. The development of regulations governing the circulation of cryptocurrency funds between an employer and an employee has begun almost around the world since the rise in the value of popular currencies. Since April 1, 2017, the concept of “virtual currencies” has been introduced into the legislation of Japan, and cryptocurrencies have become a fully legalized means of payment. This event could not but affect the employment relationship. So, at the end of 2018, GMO Corporation planned to transfer about 5 thousand of its employees to the cryptocurrency form of payment. (Bitcoin.com “Japanese Internet Giant GMO Offers to Pay 4 700+ Employees in Bitcoin”). https://preview.redd.it/6a3rakkd49g41.jpg?width=1229&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=145524c16558a822495912e7cf6756d51ffd7dcd The United States of America, as the state with the largest number of cryptocurrency users, is also actively developing relevant legislation. US authorities have created a favorable atmosphere for the use of cryptocurrencies. This is also confirmed by studies in the field of labor relations and the labor market. According to a recent release from Bitwage, it was revealed that 10.5% of the companies surveyed currently pay employees, at least in part, in bitcoins. Across the country, about 20 thousand employees are registered in this program, who, accordingly, receive wages in cryptocurrency funds (Legal Ramifications of Paying Employees with Cryptocurrency). https://preview.redd.it/c077826i49g41.jpg?width=986&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6c5cbd2ede96c15b056afab7ac9ec859eff2801f In order to ensure that the employee and the employer do not hide from taxation when paying wages with cryptocurrencies, some states create entire committees within financial ministries whose main function is to control cash flows and record the tax base of a particular subject of labor relations. One of these countries is Singapore, which in recent years has become the economic center of the world since most projects designed for worldwide use are tested here. Already in 2014, the Monetary Authority of Singapore announced the beginning of the process of legislative regulation of all operations with cryptocurrencies, including those related to labor relations. This body will regulate the process of payment of wages to the employee in this format all stages of the currency movement: from entering the employer company to paying the employee for his own purchases and services, thereby ensuring the security of cryptocurrency transactions and in every possible way helping employees quickly and safely enter the new payment system (Putting Singapore’s Dollar On Blockchain May Prove It’s The Most Crypto-Friendly Place On Earth). https://preview.redd.it/8vzcundl49g41.jpg?width=801&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=d12e2410fe85254e9aa26e848f2a3e919fdceaf2
In order for cryptocurrencies to become one of the forms of remuneration, it is necessary first of all to solve the main problems that impede the full use of electronic means in labor relations.
The paramount task is the normative consolidation of all aspects related to the circulation of such financial resources. The assignment of electronic means of payment to cash will greatly simplify the mechanism for regulating these relations, as this will avoid introducing a large number of changes to existing legislation. It is logical to solve the problem of taxation after legislative determination and consolidation, using Singaporean experience, creating a specially authorized committee in the Federal Tax Services. This will significantly save energy and money while deciding the whole layer in the use of cryptocurrency funds. The existing mechanisms for accounting for taxable items and calculating the amount of legally established taxes and fees will not differ much from the existing ones. Therefore, from this side, the introduction of cryptocurrencies will not greatly complicate or change the current system. The problem of a large number of different cryptocurrencies and their changing value can be solved in several ways. This may be the choice of one cryptocurrency, not necessarily Bitcoin, from among the existing ones. This decision will not create potential difficulties since a well-chosen currency by specialists at the time of consolidation will already be functioning for a long time, showing the real rate without sharp jumps, which will protect workers from depreciation situations and the inability to use their funds. As for other blockchain technologies, it seems that the principles of smart contracts can be applied to the work of remote workers. There is currently no established definition of smart contracts. In the most general form, you can define a smart contract as a contract with the automatic fulfillment of certain conditions. This automatic system will simplify the control of the employer over the employee. In the case of a remote employee, it is the control by the employer that will be, on the one hand, a motivating factor in compliance with labor discipline, and on the other hand, a way to minimize the risks of the employer when bringing the remote employee to disciplinary liability. The remoteness of the employee from the employer should not become an insurmountable obstacle to the implementation of the above control. Smart contracts will facilitate the interaction of the employee and the employer, simplify the control mechanism. Thus, competent legislative consolidation and integration of blockchain technologies into the existing financial system are not an insoluble issue. If you take this seriously, the problem can be solved in a fairly short time, since examples of successful incorporation of electronic currencies into the economic scheme in some countries are very common.
Therefore, the question of the cryptocurrency form of remuneration is becoming very real and having good prospects in the near future, as well as the use of other blockchain technologies in the world of work.
A (hopefully mathematically neutral) comparison of Lightning network fees to Bitcoin Cash on-chain fees.
A side note before I begin For context, earlier today, sherlocoinmade a post on this sub asking if Lightning Network transactions are cheaper than on-chain BCH transactions. This user also went on to complain on /bitcointhat his "real" numbers were getting downvoted I was initially going to respond to his post, but after I typed some of my response, I realized it is relevant to a wider Bitcoin audience and the level of analysis done warranted a new post. This wound up being the longest post I've ever written, so I hope you agree. I've placed the TL;DR at the top and bottom for the simple reason that you need to prepare your face... because it's about to get hit with a formidable wall of text. TL;DR: While Lightning node paymentsthemselvescost less than on-chain BCH payments, the associated overhead currently requires a LN channel to produce 16 transactions just to break-even under ideal 1sat/byte circumstances and substantially more as the fee rate goes up. Further, the Lightning network can provide no guarantee in its current state to maintain/reduce fees to 1sat/byte. Let's Begin With An Ideal World Lightning network fees themselves are indeed cheaper than Bitcoin Cash fees, but in order to get to a state where a Lightning network fee can be made, you are required to open a channel, and to get to a state where those funds are spendable, you must close that channel. On the Bitcoin network, the minimum accepted fee is 1sat/byte so for now, we'll assume that ideal scenario of 1sat/byte. We'll also assume the open and close is sent as a simple native Segwit transaction with a weighted size of 141 bytes. Because we have to both open and close, this 141 byte fee will be incurred twice. The total fee for an ideal open/close transaction is 1.8¢ For comparison, a simple transaction on the BCH network requires 226 bytes one time. The minimum fee accepted next-block is 1sat/byte. At the time of writing an ideal BCH transaction fee costs ~ 0.11¢ This means that under idealized circumstances, you must currently make at least 16 transactions on a LN channel to break-even with fees Compounding Factors Our world is not ideal, so below I've listed compounding factors, common arguments, an assessment, and whether the problem is solvable. Problem 1: Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash prices are asymmetrical. Common arguments:
BTC: If Bitcoin Cash had the same price, the fees would be far higher
Yes, this is true. If Bitcoin Cash had the same market price as Bitcoin, our ideal scenario changes substantially. An open and close on Bitcoin still costs 1.8¢ while a simple Bitcoin Cash transaction now costs 1.4¢. The break-even point for a Lightning Channel is now only 2 transactions. Is this problem solvable? Absolutely. Bitcoin Cash has already proposed a reduction in fees to 1sat for every 10 bytes, and that amount can be made lower by later proposals. While there is no substantial pressure to implement this now, if Bitcoin Cash had the same usage as Bitcoin currently does, it is far more likely to be implemented. If implemented at the first proposed reduction rate, under ideal circumstances, a Lightning Channel would need to produce around 13 transactions for the new break even. But couldn't Bitcoin reduce fees similarly The answer there is really tricky. If you reduce on-chain fees, you reduce the incentive to use the Lightning Network as the network becomes more hospitable to micropaments. This would likely increase the typical mempool state and decrease the Lightning Channel count some. The upside is that when the mempool saturates with low transaction fees, users are then re-incentivized to use the lightning network after the lowes fees are saturated with transactions. This should, in theory, produce some level of a transaction fee floor which is probably higher on average than 0.1 sat/byte on the BTC network. Problem 2: This isn't an ideal world, we can't assume 1sat/byte fees Common arguments:
BCH: If you tried to open a channel at peak fees, you could pay $50 each way BTC: LN wasn't implemented which is why the fees are low now
Both sides have points here. It's true that if the mempool was in the same state as it was in December of 2017, that a user could have potentially been incentivized to pay an open and close channel fee of up to 1000 sat/byte to be accepted in a reasonable time-frame. With that being said, two factors have resulted in a reduced mempool size of Bitcoin: Increased Segwit and Lightning Network Usage, and an overall cooling of the market. I'm not going to speculate as to what percentage of which is due to each factor. Instead, I'm going to simply analyze mempool statistics for the last few months where both factors are present. Let's get an idea of current typical Bitcoin network usage fees by asking Johoe quick what the mempool looks like. For the last few months, the bitcoin mempool has followed almost the exact same pattern. Highest usage happens between 10AM and 3PM EST with a peak around noon. Weekly, usage usually peaks on Tuesday or Wednesday with enough activity to fill blocks with at least minimum fee transactions M-F during the noted hours and usually just shy of block-filling capacity on Sat and Sun. These observations can be additionally evidenced by transaction counts on bitinfocharts. It's also easier to visualize on bitinfocharts over a longer time-frame. Opening a channel Under pre-planned circumstances, you can offload channel creation to off-peak hours and maintain a 1sat/byte rate. The primary issue arises in situations where either 1) LN payments are accepted and you had little prior knowledge, or 2) You had a previous LN pathway to a known payment processor and one or more previously known intermediaries are offline or otherwise unresponsive causing the payment to fail. Your options are: A) Create a new LN channel on-the-spot where you're likely to incur current peak fee rates of 5-20sat/byte. B) Create an on-chain payment this time and open a LN channel when fees are more reasonable. C) Use an alternate currency for the transaction. There is a fundamental divide among the status of C. Some people view Bitcoin as (primarily) a storage of value, and thus as long as there are some available onramps and offramps, the currency will hold value. There are other people who believe that fungibility is what gives cryptocurrency it's value and that option C would fundamentally undermine the value of the currency. I don't mean to dismiss either argument, but option C opens a can of worms that alone can fill economic textbooks. For the sake of simplicity, we will throw out option C as a possibility and save that debate for another day. We will simply require that payment is made in crypto. With option B, you would absolutely need to pay the peak rate (likely higher) for a single transaction as a Point-of-Sale scenario with a full mempool would likely require at least one confirm and both parties would want that as soon as possible after payment. It would not be unlikely to pay 20-40 sat/byte on a single transaction and then pay 1sat/byte for an open and close to enable LN payments later. Even in the low end, the total cost is 20¢ for on-chain + open + close. With present-day-statistics, your LN would have to do 182 transactions to make up for the one peak on-chain transaction you were forced to do. With option A, you still require one confirm. Let's also give the additional leeway that in this scenario you have time to sit and wait a couple of blocks for your confirm before you order / pay. You can thus pay peak rates alone and not peak + ensure next block rates. This will most likely be in the 5-20 sat/byte range. With 5sat/byte open and 1sat/byte close, your LN would have to do 50 transactions to break even In closing, fees are incurred by the funding channel, so there could be scenarios where the receiving party is incentivized to close in order to spend outputs and the software automatically calculates fees based on current rates. If this is the case, the receiving party could incur a higher-than-planned fee to the funding party. With that being said, any software that allows the funding party to set the fee beforehand would avoid unplanned fees, so we'll assume low fees for closing. Is this problem solvable? It depends. In order to avoid the peak-fee open/close ratio problem, the Bitcoin network either needs to have much higher LN / Segwit utilization, or increase on-chain capacity. If it gets to a point where transactions stack up, users will be required to pay more than 1sat/byte per transaction and should expect as much. Current Bitcoin network utilization is close enough to 100% to fill blocks during peak times. I also did an export of the data available at Blockchair.com for the last 3000 blocks which is approximately the last 3 weeks of data. According to their block-weight statistics, The average Bitcoin block is 65.95% full. This means that on-chain, Bitcoin can only increase in transaction volume by around 50% and all other scaling must happen via increased Segwit and LN use. Problem 3: You don't fully control your LN channel states. Common arguments:
BCH: You can get into a scenario where you don't have output capacity and need to open a new channel. BCH: A hostile actor can cause you to lose funds during a high-fee situation where a close is forced. BTC: You can easily re-load your channel by pushing outbound to inbound. BCH: You can't control whether nodes you connect to are online or offline.
There's a lot to digest here, but LN is essentially a 2-way contract between 2 parties. Not only does the drafting party pay the fees as of right now, but connected 3rd-parties can affect the state of this contract. There are some interesting scenarios that develop because of it and you aren't always in full control of what side. Lack of outbound capacity First, it's true that if you run out of outbound capacity, you either need to reload or create a new channel. This could potentially require 0, 1, or 2 additional on-chain transactions. If a network loop exists between a low-outbound-capacity channel and yourself, you could push transactional capacity through the loop back to the output you wish to spend to. This would require 0 on-chain transactions and would only cost 1 (relatively negligible) LN fee charge. For all intents and purposes... this is actually kind of a cool scenario. If no network loop exists from you-to-you, things get more complex. I've seen proposals like using Bitrefill to push capacity back to your node. In order to do this, you would have an account with them and they would lend custodial support based on your account. While people opting for trustless money would take issue in 3rd party custodians, I don't think this alone is a horrible solution to the LN outbound capacity problem... Although it depends on the fee that bitrefill charges to maintain an account and account charges could negate the effectiveness of using the LN. Still, we will assume this is a 0 on-chain scenario and would only cost 1 LN fee which remains relatively negligible. If no network loop exists from you and you don't have a refill service set up, you'll need at least one on-chain payment to another LN entity in exchange for them to push LN capacity to you. Let's assume ideal fee rates. If this is the case, your refill would require an additional 7 transactions for that channel's new break-even. Multiply that by number of sat/byte if you have to pay more. Opening a new channel is the last possibility and we go back to the dynamics of 13 transactions per LN channel in the ideal scenario. Hostile actors There are some potential attack vectors previously proposed. Most of these are theoretical and/or require high fee scenarios to come about. I think that everyone should be wary of them, however I'm going to ignore most of them again for the sake of succinctness. This is not to be dismissive... it's just because my post length has already bored most casual readers half to death and I don't want to be responsible for finishing the job. Pushing outbound to inbound While I've discussed scenarios for this push above, there are some strange scenarios that arise where pushing outbound to inbound is not possible and even some scenarios where a 3rd party drains your outbound capacity before you can spend it. A while back I did a testnet simulation to prove that this scenario can and will happen it was a post response that happened 2 weeks after the initial post so it flew heavily under the radar, but the proof is there. The moral of this story is in some scenarios, you can't count on loaded network capacity to be there by the time you want to spend it. Online vs Offline Nodes We can't even be sure that a given computer is online to sign a channel open or push capacity until we try. Offline nodes provide a brick-wall in the pathfinding algorithm so an alternate route must be found. If we have enough channel connectivity to be statistically sure we can route around this issue, we're in good shape. If not, we're going to have issues. Is this problem solvable? Only if the Lightning network can provide an (effectively) infinite amount of capacity... but... Problem 4: Lightning Network is not infinite. Common arguments:
BTC: Lightning network can scale infinitely so there's no problem.
Unfortunately, LN is not infinitely scalable. In fact, finding a pathway from one node to another is roughly the same problem as the traveling salesman problem.Dijkstra's algorithm which is a problem that diverges polynomially. The most efficient proposals have a difficulty bound by O(n^2). Note - in the above I confused the complexity of the traveling salesman problem with Dijkstra when they do not have the same bound. With that being said, the complexity of the LN will still diverge with size In lay terms, what that means is every time you double the size of the Lightning Network, finding an indirect LN pathway becomes 4 times as difficult and data intensive. This means that for every doubling, the amount of traffic resulting from a single request also quadruples. You can potentially temporarily mitigate traffic by bounding the number of hops taken, but that would encourage a greater channel-per-user ratio. For a famous example... the game "6 degrees of Kevin Bacon" postulates that Kevin Bacon can be connected by co-stars to any movie by 6 degrees of separation. If the game is reduced to "4 degrees of Kevin Bacon," users of this network would still want as many connections to be made, so they'd be incentivized to hire Kevin Bacon to star in everything. You'd start to see ridiculous mash-ups and reboots just to get more connectivity... Just imagine hearing Coming soon - Kevin Bacon and Adam Sandlar star in "Billy Madison 2: Replace the face." Is this problem solvable? Signs point to no. So technically, if the average computational power and network connectivity can handle the problem (the number of Lightning network channels needed to connect the world)2 in a trivial amount of time, Lightning Network is effectively infinite as the upper bound of a non-infinite earth would limit time-frames to those that are computationally feasible. With that being said, BTC has discussed Lightning dev comments before that estimated a cap of 10,000 - 1,000,000 channels before problems are encountered which is far less than the required "number of channels needed to connect the world" level. In fact SHA256 is a newer NP-hard problem than the traveling saleseman problem. That means that statistically, and based on the amount of review that has been given to each problem, it is more likely that SHA256 - the algorithm that lends security to all of bitcoin - is cracked before the traveling salesman problem is. Notions that "a dedicated dev team can suddenly solve this problem, while not technically impossible, border on statistically absurd. Edit - While the case isn't quite as bad as the traveling salesman problem, the problem will still diverge with size and finding a more efficient algorithm is nearly as unlikely. This upper bound shows that we cannot count on infinite scalability or connectivity for the lightning network. Thus, there will always be on-chain fee pressure and it will rise as the LN reaches it's computational upper-bound. Because you can't count on channel states, the on-chain fee pressure will cause typical sat/byte fees to raise. The higher this rate, the more transactions you have to make for a Lightning payment open/close operation to pay for itself. This is, of course unless it is substantially reworked or substituted for a O(log(n))-or-better solution. Finally, I'd like to add, creating an on-chain transaction is a set non-recursive, non looping function - effectively O(1), sending this transaction over a peer-to-peer network is bounded by O(log(n)) and accepting payment is, again, O(1). This means that (as far as I can tell) on-chain transactions (very likely) scale more effectively than Lightning Network in its current state. Additional notes: My computational difficulty assumptions were based on a generalized, but similar problem set for both LN and on-chain instances. I may have overlooked additional steps needed for the specific implementation, and I may have overlooked reasons a problem is a simplified version requiring reduced computational difficulty. I would appreciate review and comment on my assumptions for computational difficulty and will happily correct said assumptions if reasonable evidence is given that a problem doesn't adhere to listed computational difficulty. TL;DR: While Lightning node paymentsthemselvescost less than on-chain BCH payments, the associated overhead currently requires a LN channel to produce 16 transactions just to break-even under ideal 1sat/byte circumstances and substantially more as the fee rate goes up. Further, the Lightning network can provide no guarantee in its current state to maintain/reduce fees to 1sat/byte.
Bitcoin, dogecoin. How I tried to make my fortune in 2014 with the sweat of my computer.
https://preview.redd.it/mv21lvsa3do31.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=51bf5296a06eedc178079cf0b3ab4c3cfc44f271 Make money just by working on your computer: the rise of electronic currencies, in the wake of bitcoin, can be a little dream, especially in times of crisis. We tried the experiment. Wealth at your fingertips? Not for everybody. Reading time: 6 min. We have known at least since March 2013, with the soaring Bitcoin (BTC) price during the closing of Cypriot banks: electronic currencies, it has not much virtual. Since the creation of the enigmatic Satoshi Nakamoto serves as a safe haven, a playground for speculators, interests the States and even makes it possible to pay for his trip to the space where his beer, bigger world would dare to pretend that it only serves to buy prohibited substances on SilkRoad - if it ever was. At the end of November, James Howells was mocked a lot, this Brit, caught in a household frenzy, inadvertently threw a hard disk containing 7,500 bitcoins, the equivalent of 4.8 million euros. A small fortune now lost in the depths of the Docksway dump near Newport. Nevertheless, before causing the consternation of the global Internet, Jamie still had the nose to undermine the BTC at a time when the experience mobilized a handful of hardcore geeks. Since the rise (sawtooth) bitcoin, each unit currently weighs more than 800 dollars, nearly thirty cryptocurrencies have emerged. Is it possible, this year again, to let this promising, volatile and risky train pass, or to fall into
Choose your electronic motto.
All are based on the same principle: to summarize (very) big features , the issuance of money is governed by an algorithm, and the new corners put in circulation reward the resolution, by participants in a network of peer and mathematical problems, including the validation and archiving of transactions, which are public . Mining a cryptocurrency is like putting the computing power of your computer in the service of the network.
Since the program is decreasing , the mining becomes more and more difficult with time (and with the increase of the number of participants): to hope to make his pelote via the only computational activity, one must either have to at its disposal a large fleet of machines, to be a miner from the first hour. Exit the bitcoin, long since out of the reach of a personal computer.
I similarly gave up the litecoin and peercoin, already well launched (they date respectively 2011 and 2012), to set my heart on one of the most recent currencies - and certainly the hippest of the moment: the dogecoin.
As its name suggests, the cryptocurrency favorite Shiba Inus from around the world is a tribute to the Doge, one of the most famous memes of 2013, with its captions in Comic Sans, the font most sorry for the web. A geek joke, therefore, except that - the unfathomable mysteries of the Internet - its value jumped 900% in the third week of December, and she suffered a Christmas robbery online.
Admittedly, at the time when these lines are written, the dogecoin caps at 0.00023 dollars  - its quite ridiculous (and quite depressing), but even if you bet on the future, so much to go frankly.
2. The hands in the engine the billboard.
From there, things get tough (a little). Installing an electronic purse on ones computer is not very complicated (the software is available for Windows, MacOS, Android or, for the more adventurous, on a repository to compile under Linux). It is also possible to use an online wallet, but it is more risky (except, perhaps, when one is called James Howells). When opened for the first time, the purse automatically synchronizes with the Dogecoin network (be careful, it can be long), which gives you a payment address (we can generate more later).
The two most common ways to undermine electronic money are to use the computing power of the computers microprocessor (CPU) or, more efficiently, that of the graphics card processor (GPU). In the first case, the program is simple to install; in the second, it is necessary to choose the most adapted to its material . There are, thankfully, a lot of online tutorials. Still, to operate the corner board requires in all cases to trade the comfort of the GUI for aridity, so confusing to the layman, command lines - we have nothing for nothing.
Finally, at work alone, we prefer collaboration. Mining is best done in groups, or rather in pool: it distributes the gains, of course, but also the difficulty. For the dogecoin as for all the crypto-currencies, the pools are numerous. A quick tour of a dedicated section of the Reddit community site can help you make your choice.
3. Extension of the field of struggle.
And after? After, we can rest, since it is the machine that works. But the truth of a cryptocurrency - even at the exceptionally high LOL and LOL rates of the Shiba Inu - is cruel and brutal: not all computers are equal. Or rather, some are more equal than others. For while you heat your CPU or your graphics card to grapple some unfortunate corners, others will sweep the game thanks to specialized integrated circuits, computing capabilities much higher.
If the game of buying and reselling corners is basically just another stock exchange mechanism, less the intervention of the central banks - what is at stake, and the big political question they ask: are we certain to prefer speculation pure and perfect to monetary policies, however questionable they may be? -, production, it is the law of the strongest (in calculation). There are even lethal weapons at $ 10,000 each, with which your processors are like mosquitoes in front of an A bomb.
And if you think it does not matter because after all, it does not cost you anything, think again: the components, like humans, wear out faster when they work at full speed, and the bill of electricity can quickly grow. The profitability of the case is anything but certain, as evidenced by the results of online calculators. (Needless to say, our laughing dogecoin does not stand up to this kind of simulation.)
Much more boring, from a collective point of view: the carbon footprint, current and above all expected, of electronic currencies worries more and more. Last spring, Bloomberg estimated that the energy consumption of the Bitcoin network was equivalent to that of 31,000 US households. Not sure, according to the site, that their emission is less damaging to the environment than have been some physical currencies.
For exciting to analyze that is the emergence of cryptocurrencies, it is better to ask now about their cost, economic and ecological. To see it as a potential source of income, except for being a very early adopter with a hollow nose, an individual with a lot of computational capital or a clever trader, you have to make a point.
If the recurrent comparison with the famous Ponzi pyramid  is discussed (after all, the decentralized currencies do not make promises), remains that, as long as the value does not collapse, the system benefits mainly to the first entrants - except James Howells.
As the Bitcoin.fr site aptly states: all this is just an experiment, invest only the time and money you can afford to lose. LOLs love was not a worse reason than another to experiment, so I finally submitted my laptop to four days and three nights of intense activity, which makes me happy. owner of a good half a thousand dogecoins. Either the equivalent of 0.115 dollar, or 0.08 euro. It is obviously not worth the electricity consumed to generate them, it increases my carbon footprint, but it amuses my entourage. But laughter is, as everyone knows, a safe bet in times of crisis, less volatile than a real bitcoin.
And then, after all, you never know.
1. For explanations more provided (the case is quite complex), refer, for example, to the series of very detailed notes devoted to blogger Turblog.
2. And as such, searchable by everyone. It is the identity of the users that is not known, unless they reveal it, hence the reputation of anonymity (relative, therefore) cryptocurrencies.
3. In the case of bitcoin, the maximum of 21 million units should be reached around 2140.
4. For a day-to-day follow-up, see the CoinMarketCap site which lists the exchange rates of crypto-currencies, based on the dollar value of bitcoin.
5. We discover then, unfortunately, that some graphics cards do not allow the mining. This is the case for the author of these lines, reduced to working in conditions of extreme computer deprivation.
6. Comparison which is at the heart of a hilarious note on the ponzicoin, signed by the economic journalist Matthew OBrien, on The Atlantic (to read if you intend seriously to invest in the dogecoin).
An extensive list of blockchain courses, resources and articles to help you get a job working with blockchain.
u/Maximus_no and me spent some time at work collecting and analyzing learning material for blockchain development. The list contains resources for developers, as well as business analysts/consultants looking to learn more about blockchain use-cases and solutions.
Certifications and Courses
IIB Council Link to course: IIB council : Certified Blockchain Professional C|BP is an In-Depth, Industry Agnostic, Hands-On Training and Certification Course specifically tailored for Industry Professionals and Developers interested in implementing emerging technologies in the Data-Driven Markets and Digitized Economies. The IIB Council Certified Blockchain Professional (C|BP) Course was developed to help respective aspiring professionals gain excessive knowledge in Blockchain technology and its implication on businesses. WHO IS IT FOR:
C|BP is developed in line with the latest industry trends to help current and aspiring Professionals evolve in their career by implementing the latest knowledge in blockchain technology. This course will help professionals understand the foundation of Blockchain technology and the opportunities this emerging technology is offering.
If you are a Developer and you are willing to learn blockchain technology this course is for you. You will learn to build and model Blockchain solutions and Blockchain-based applications for enterprises and businesses in multiple Blockchain Technologies.
This exam is designed for non-technical business professionals who require basic knowledge about Blockchain and how it will be executed within an organization. This exam is NOT appropriate for technology professionals seeking to gain deeper understanding of Blockchain technology implementation or programming.
A person who holds this certification demonstrates their knowledge of:
· What is Blockchain? (What exactly is it?) · Non-Technical Technology Overview (How does it work?) · Benefits of Blockchain (Why should anyone consider this?) · Use Cases (Where and for what apps is it appropriate?) · Adoption (Who is using it and for what?) · Future of Blockchain (What is the future?)
A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:
· Architect blockchain solutions · Work effectively with blockchain engineers and technical leaders · Choose appropriate blockchain systems for various use cases · Work effectively with both public and permissioned blockchain systems
This exam will prove that a student completely understands:
· The difference between proof of work, proof of stake, and other proof systems and why they exist · Why cryptocurrency is needed on certain types of blockchains · The difference between public, private, and permissioned blockchains · How blocks are written to the blockchain · Where cryptography fits into blockchain and the most commonly used systems · Common use cases for public blockchains · Common use cases for private & permissioned blockchains · What is needed to launch your own blockchain · Common problems & considerations in working with public blockchains · Awareness of the tech behind common blockchains · When is mining needed and when it is not · Byzantine Fault Tolerance · Consensus among blockchains · What is hashing · How addresses, public keys, and private keys work · What is a smart contract · Security in blockchain · Brief history of blockchain · The programming languages of the most common blockchains · Common testing and deployment practices for blockchains and blockchain-based apps
A person who holds this certification demonstrates their ability to:
· Plan and prepare production ready applications for the Ethereum blockchain · Write, test, and deploy secure Solidity smart contracts · Understand and work with Ethereum fees · Work within the bounds and limitations of the Ethereum blockchain · Use the essential tooling and systems needed to work with the Ethereum ecosystem
This exam will prove that a student completely understands how to:
· Implement web3.js · Write and compile Solidity smart contracts · Create secure smart contracts · Deploy smart contracts both the live and test Ethereum networks · Calculate Ethereum gas costs · Unit test smart contracts · Run an Ethereum node on development machines
Basic course with focus on Bitcoin. After this course, you’ll know everything you need to be able to separate fact from fiction when reading claims about Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. You’ll have the conceptual foundations you need to engineer secure software that interacts with the Bitcoin network. And you’ll be able to integrate ideas from Bitcoin in your own projects.
· A mid / basic understanding of blockchain technology and its long-term implications for business, coupled with knowledge of its relationship to other emerging technologies such as AI and IoT · An economic framework for identifying blockchain-based solutions to challenges within your own context, guided by the knowledge of cryptoeconomics expert Christian Catalini · Recognition of your newfound blockchain knowledge in the form of a certificate of completion from the MIT Sloan School of Management — one of the world’s leading business schools Orientation Module: Welcome to Your Online Campus Module 1: An introduction to blockchain technology Module 2: Bitcoin and the curse of the double-spending problem Module 3: Costless verification: Blockchain technology and the last mile problem Module 4: Bootstrapping network effects through blockchain technology and cryptoeconomics Module 5: Using tokens to design new types of digital platforms Module 6: The future of blockchain technology, AI, and digital privacy
· A mid / basic understanding of what blockchain is and how it works, as well as insights into how it will affect the future of industry and of your organization. · The ability to make better strategic business decisions by utilizing the Oxford Blockchain Strategic framework, the Oxford Blockchain Regulation framework, the Oxford Blockchain Ecosystem map, and drawing on your knowledge of blockchain and affiliated industries and technologies. · A certificate of attendance from Oxford Saïd as validation of your newfound blockchain knowledge and skills, as well as access to a global network of like-minded business leaders and innovators. Module 1: Understanding blockchain Module 2: The blockchain ecosystem Module 3: Innovations in value transfer Module 4: Decentralized apps and smart contracts Module 5: Transforming enterprise business models Module 6: Blockchain frontiers
[Proof of Work] - very short, cuz it's well-known.  Bitcoin - to generate a new block miner must generate hash of the new block header that is in line with given requirements. Others: Ethereum, Litecoin etc. [Hybrid of PoW and PoS]  Decred - hybrid of “proof of work” and “proof of stake”. Blocks are created about every 5 minutes. Nodes in the network looking for a solution with a known difficulty to create a block (PoW). Once the solution is found it is broadcast to the network. The network then verifies the solution. Stakeholders who have locked some DCR in return for a ticket* now have the chance to vote on the block (PoS). 5 tickets are chosen pseudo-randomly from the ticket pool and if at least 3 of 5 vote ‘yes’ the block is permanently added to the blockchain. Both miners and voters are compensated with DCR : PoS - 30% and PoW - 60% of about 30 new Decred issued with a block. * 1 ticket = ability to cast 1 vote. Stakeholders must wait an average of 28 days (8,192 blocks) to vote their tickets. [Proof of Stake]  Nxt - The more tokens are held by account, the greater chance that account will earn the right to generate a block. The total reward received as a result of block generation is the sum of the transaction fees located within the block. Three values are key to determining which account is eligible to generate a block, which account earns the right to generate a block, and which block is taken to be the authoritative one in times of conflict: base target value, target value and cumulative difficulty. Each block on the chain has a generation signature parameter. To participate in the block's forging process, an active account digitally signs the generation signature of the previous block with its own public key. This creates a 64-byte signature, which is then hashed using SHA256. The first 8 bytes of the resulting hash are converted to a number, referred to as the account hit. The hit is compared to the current target value(active balance). If the computed hit is lower than the target, then the next block can be generated.  Peercoin (chain-based proof of stake) - coin age parameter. Hybrid PoW and PoS algorithm. The longer your Peercoins have been stationary in your account (to a maximum of 90 days), the more power (coin age) they have to mint a block. The act of minting a block requires the consumption of coin age value, and the network determines consensus by selecting the chain with the largest total consumed coin age. Reward - minting + 1% yearly.  Reddcoin (Proof of stake Velocity) - quite similar to Peercoin, difference: not linear coin-aging function (new coins gain weight quickly, and old coins gain weight increasingly slowly) to encourage Nodes Activity. Node with most coin age weight have a bigger chance to create block. To create block Node should calculate right hash. Block reward - interest on the weighted age of coins/ 5% annual interest in PoSV phase.  Ethereum (Casper) - uses modified BFT consensus. Blocks will be created using PoW. In the Casper Phase 1 implementation for Ethereum, the “proposal mechanism" is the existing proof of work chain, modified to have a greatly reduced block reward. Blocks will be validated by set of Validators. Block is finalised when 2/3 of validators voted for it (not the number of validators is counted, but their deposit size). Block creator rewarded with Block Reward + Transaction FEES.  Lisk (Delegated Proof-of-stake) - Lisk stakeholders vote with vote transaction (the weight of the vote depends on the amount of Lisk the stakeholder possess) and choose 101 Delegates, who create all blocks in the blockchain. One delegate creates 1 block within 1 round (1 round contains 101 blocks) -> At the beginning of each round, each delegate is assigned a slot indicating their position in the block generation process -> Delegate includes up to 25 transactions into the block, signs it and broadcasts it to the network -> As >51% of available peers agreed that this block is acceptable to be created (Broadhash consensus), a new block is added to the blockchain. *Any account may become a delegate, but only accounts with the required stake (no info how much) are allowed to generate blocks. Block reward - minted Lisks and transaction fees (fees for all 101 blocks are collected firstly and then are divided between delegates). Blocks appears every 10 sec.  Cardano (Ouroboros Proof of Stake) - Blocks(slots) are created by Slot Leaders. Slot Leaders for N Epoch are chosen during n-1 Epoch. Slot Leaders are elected from the group of ADA stakeholders who have enough stake. Election process consist of 3 phases: Commitment phase: each elector generates a random value (secret), signs it and commit as message to network (other electors) saved in to block. -> Reveal phase: Each elector sends special value to open a commitment, all this values (opening) are put into the block. -> Recovery phase: each elector verifies that commitments and openings match and extracts the secrets and forms a SEED (randomly generated bytes string based on secrets). All electors get the same SEED. -> Follow the Satoshi algorithm : Elector who have coin which corresponded to SEED become a SLOT LEADER and get a right to create a block. Slot Leader is rewarded with minted ADA and transactions Fee.  Tezos (Proof Of Stake) - generic and self-amending crypto-ledger. At the beginning of each cycle (2048 blocks), a random seed is derived from numbers that block miners chose and committed to in the penultimate cycle, and revealed in the last. -> Using this random seed, a follow the coin strategy (similar to Follow The Satoshi) is used to allocate mining rights and signing rights to stakeholders for the next cycle*. -> Blocks are mined by a random stakeholder (the miner) and includes multiple signatures of the previous block provided by random stakeholders (the signers). Mining and signing both offer a small reward but also require making a one cycle safety deposit to be forfeited in the event of a double mining or double signing. · the more coins (rolls) you have - the more your chance to be a minesigner.  Tendermint (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - A proposal is signed and published by the designated proposer at each round. The proposer is chosen by a deterministic and non-choking round robin selection algorithm that selects proposers in proportion to their voting power. The proposer create the block, that should be validated by >2/3 of Validators, as follow: Propose -> Prevote -> Precommit -> Commit. Proposer rewarded with Transaction FEES.  Tron (Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - This blockhain is still on development stage. Consensus algorithm = PoS + BFT (similar to Tendermint): PoS algorithm chooses a node as Proposer, this node has the power to generate a block. -> Proposer broadcasts a block that it want to release. -> Block enters the Prevote stage. It takes >2/3 of nodes' confirmations to enter the next stage. -> As the block is prevoted, it enters Precommit stage and needs >2/3 of node's confirmation to go further. -> As >2/3 of nodes have precommited the block it's commited to the blockchain with height +1. New blocks appears every 15 sec.  NEO (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - Consensus nodes* are elected by NEO holders -> The Speaker is identified (based on algorithm) -> He broadcasts proposal to create block -> Each Delegate (other consensus nodes) validates proposal -> Each Delegate sends response to other Delegates -> Delegate reaches consensus after receiving 2/3 positive responses -> Each Delegate signs the block and publishes it-> Each Delegate receives a full block. Block reward 6 GAS distributed proportionally in accordance with the NEO holding ratio among NEO holders. Speaker rewarded with transaction fees (mostly 0). * Stake 1000 GAS to nominate yourself for Bookkeeping(Consensus Node)  EOS (Delegated Proof of Stake) - those who hold tokens on a blockchain adopting the EOS.IO software may select* block producers through a continuous approval voting system and anyone may choose to participate in block production and will be given an opportunity to produce blocks proportional to the total votes they have received relative to all other producers. At the start of each round 21 unique block producers are chosen. The top 20 by total approval are automatically chosen every round and the last producer is chosen proportional to their number of votes relative to other producers. Block should be confirmed by 2/3 or more of elected Block producers. Block Producer rewarded with Block rewards. *the more EOS tokens a stakeholder owns, the greater their voting power [The XRP Ledger Consensus Process]  Ripple - Each node receives transaction from external applications -> Each Node forms public list of all valid (not included into last ledger (=block)) transactions aka (Candidate Set) -> Nodes merge its candidate set with UNLs(Unique Node List) candidate sets and vote on the veracity of all transactions (1st round of consensus) -> all transactions that received at least 50% votes are passed on the next round (many rounds may take place) -> final round of consensus requires that min 80% of Nodes UNL agreeing on transactions. It means that at least 80% of Validating nodes should have same Candidate SET of transactions -> after that each Validating node computes a new ledger (=block) with all transactions (with 80% UNL agreement) and calculate ledger hash, signs and broadcasts -> All Validating nodes compare their ledgers hash -> Nodes of the network recognize a ledger instance as validated when a 80% of the peers have signed and broadcast the same validation hash. -> Process repeats. Ledger creation process lasts 5 sec(?). Each transaction includes transaction fee (min 0,00001 XRP) which is destroyed. No block rewards. [The Stellar consensus protocol]  Stellar (Federated Byzantine Agreement) - quite similar to Ripple. Key difference - quorum slice. [Proof of Burn]  Slimcoin - to get the right to write blocks Node should “burn” amount of coins. The more coins Node “burns” more chances it has to create blocks (for long period) -> Nodes address gets a score called Effective Burnt Coins that determines chance to find blocks. Block creator rewarded with block rewards. [Proof of Importance]  NEM - Only accounts that have min 10k vested coins are eligible to harvest (create a block). Accounts with higher importance scores have higher probabilities of harvesting a block. The higher amount of vested coins, the higher the account’s Importance score. And the higher amount of transactions that satisfy following conditions: - transactions sum min 1k coins, - transactions made within last 30 days, - recipient have 10k vested coins too, - the higher account’s Important score. Harvester is rewarded with fees for the transactions in the block. A new block is created approx. every 65 sec. [Proof of Devotion]  Nebulas (Proof of Devotion + BFT) - quite similar to POI, the PoD selects the accounts with high influence. All accounts are ranked according to their liquidity and propagation (Nebulas Rank) -> Top-ranked accounts are selected -> Chosen accounts pay deposit and are qualified as the blocks Validators* -> Algorithm pseudo-randomly chooses block Proposer -> After a new block is proposed, Validators Set (each Validator is charged a deposit) participate in a round of BFT-Style voting to verify block (1. Prepare stage -> 2. Commit Stage. Validators should have > 2/3 of total deposits to validate Block) -> Block is added. Block rewards : each Validator rewarded with 1 NAS. *Validators Set is dynamic, changes in Set may occur after Epoch change. [IOTA Algorithm]  IOTA - uses DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph) instead of blockchain (TANGLE equal to Ledger). Graph consist of transactions (not blocks). To issue a new transaction Node must approve 2 random other Transactions (not confirmed). Each transaction should be validate n(?) times. By validating PAST(2) transactions whole Network achieves Consensus. in Order to issue transaction Node: 1. Sign transaction with private key 2. choose two other Transactions to validate based on MCMC(Markov chain Monte Carlo) algorithm, check if 2 transactions are valid (node will never approve conflicting transactions) 3. make some PoW(similar to HashCash). -> New Transaction broadcasted to Network. Node don’t receive reward or fee. [PBFT + PoW]  Yobicash - uses PBFT and also PoW. Nodes reach consensus on transactions by querying other nodes. A node asks its peers about the state of a transaction: if it is known or not, and if it is a doublespending transaction or not. As follow : Node receives new transaction -> Checks if valid -> queries all known nodes for missing transactions (check if already in DAG ) -> queries 2/3 nodes for doublepsending and possibility -> if everything is ok add to DAG. Reward - nodes receive transaction fees + minting coins. [Proof of Space/Proof of Capacity]  Filecoin (Power Fault Tolerance) - the probability that the network elects a miner(Leader) to create a new block (it is referred to as the voting power of the miner) is proportional to storage currently in use in relation to the rest of the network. Each node has Power - storage in use verified with Proof of Spacetime by nodes. Leaders extend the chain by creating a block and propagating it to the network. There can be an empty block (when no leader). A block is committed if the majority of the participants add their weight on the chain where the block belongs to, by extending the chain or by signing blocks. Block creator rewarded with Block reward + transaction fees. [Proof of Elapsed Time (POET)]  Hyperledger Sawtooth - Goal - to solve BFT Validating Nodes limitation. Works only with intel’s SGX. PoET uses a random leader election model or a lottery based election model based on SGX, where the protocol randomly selects the next leader to finalize the block. Every validator requests a wait time from an enclave (a trusted function). -> The validator with the shortest wait time for a particular transaction block is elected the leader. -> The BlockPublisher is responsible for creating candidate blocks to extend the current chain. He takes direction from the consensus algorithm for when to create a block and when to publish a block. He creates, Finalizes, Signs Block and broadcast it -> Block Validators check block -> Block is created on top of blockchain.  Byteball (Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance) - only verified nodes are allowed to be Validation nodes (list of requirements https://github.com/byteball/byteball-witness). Users choose in transaction set of 12 Validating nodes. Validating nodes(Witnesses) receive transaction fees.  Nano - uses DAG, PoW (HashCash). Nano uses a block-lattice structure. Each account has its own blockchain (account-chain) equivalent to the account’s transaction/balance history. To add transaction user should make some HashCash PoW -> When user creates transaction Send Block appears on his blockchain and Receive block appears on Recipients blockchain. -> Peers in View receive Block -> Peers verify block (Double spending and check if already in the ledger) -> Peers achieve consensus and add block. In case of Fork (when 2 or more signed blocks reference the same previous block): Nano network resolves forks via a balance-weighted voting system where representative nodes vote for the block they observe, as >50% of weighted votes received, consensus achieved and block is retained in the Node’s ledger (block that lose the vote is discarded).  Holochain - uses distributed hash table (DHT). Instead of trying to manage global consensus for every change to a huge blockchain ledger, every participant has their own signed hash chain. In case of multi-party transaction, it is signed to each party's chain. Each party signs the exact same transaction with links to each of their previous chain entries. After data is signed to local chains, it is shared to a DHT where every neighbor node validate it. Any consensus algorithms can be built on top of Holochain.  Komodo ('Delegated' Delayed Proof of Work (dPoW)) - end-to-end blockchain solutions. DPoW consensus mechanism does not recognize The Longest Chain Rule to resolve a conflict in the network, instead the dPoW looks to backups it inserted previously into the chosen PoW blockchain. The process of inserting backups of Komodo transactions into a secure PoW is “notarization.” Notarisation is performed by the elected Notary nodes. Roughly every ten minutes, the Notary nodes perform a special block hash mined on the Komodo blockchain and take note of the overall Komodo blockchain “height”. The notary nodes process this specifc block so that their signatures are cryptographically included within the content of the notarized data. There are sixty-four “Notary nodes” elected by a stake-weighted vote, where ownership of KMD represents stake in the election. They are a special type of blockchain miner, having certain features in their underlying code that enable them to maintain an effective and cost-efcient blockchain and they periodically receives the privilege to mine a block on “easy difculty.” Source: https://www.reddit.com/CryptoTechnology/comments/7znnq8/my_brief_observation_of_most_common_consensus/ Whitepapers Worth Looking Into: IOTA -http://iotatoken.com/IOTA_Whitepaper.pdf NANO -https://nano.org/en/whitepaper Bitcoin -https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf Ethereum: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/White-Paper Ethereum Plasma (Omise-GO) -https://plasma.io/plasma.pdf Cardano - https://eprint.iacr.org/2016/889.pdf
Exclusive Interview With Waltonchain CEO Mo Bing, by Golden Finance
Latest interview with Mo Bing, CEO of Waltonchain. Translated by Google. https://www.jinse.com/news/bitcoin/307047.html Walton chain CEO Mo Bing: talk about ecology is not for Shantou | Golden Finance exclusive interview At the beginning of the birth of most public chains, we aimed to catch up with Ethereum. However, after a whole year of development, there are not many online test networks and main networks. Most public chains with weak hematopoietic capacity are being washed away. Among the many public chains, the Walton chain has gone out of a maverick road. In this regard, the explanation given by the Walton chain is, "This is based on the road map created by the 'value Internet of Things'." Most public chains face the dilemma of being eliminated. In the past 2018, it was regarded as the "first year of the public chain." In the past year, a large number of public chains claiming to lead the blockchain into the "3.0 era" emerged. At the beginning of their birth, they all had the same goal. Ethereum. Therefore, state channels, side chains, sub-chains, fragmentation technology, IPFS technology, etc. have been developed to solve transaction speed and storage problems. However, after one year, there are not many online test networks and main networks. Most public chains with weak hematopoietic capacity are being washed away. Among the many public chains, the Walton chain has gone out of a maverick road. An ecosystem that runs through production, distribution, and consumption. Unlike most public networks that are busy with the main online line and performance upgrades, the main source of the Walton chain is the ecological map. For this type of play, the Walton chain gives the explanation, "This is based on the road map created by the 'value Internet of Things'." "We talk about ecology is not for gimmicks. What we have to do is a long and ambitious thing. For an industry example, such as liquor, we want to get through the three links of production, circulation and consumption. These data may come from different industries in the chain. The need for our parent chain to be the bottom layer to achieve the entire process from production to circulation to sales, so the focus of the Walton chain on ecological construction." Walton chain CEO Mo Bing said. In the ecosystem of Walton chain, the main chain as the underlying cornerstone is the basis for all activities; WTC is the value of the ecosystem, responsible for the whole ecological incentives and value transfer; above the main chain, each sub-chain cross Chain interoperability, processing and carrying data; the combination of software and hardware forms a full-closed system from production to consumption; after the infrastructure is built, it connects the real economy and provides customized solutions. In Mo Bing's view, the Walton chain is not the same as some of the public chains that pursue performance. This is not the same as the role positioning of the public chain. Performance is an important criterion for most application networks that plan to host DAPP - but blind pursuit of performance clearly does not allow for the final application. The Walton chain has already identified its own positioning early, through the combination of software and hardware to open up the physical world and chain data, complete the process of confirming the right and anti-counterfeiting. The Walton chain starts with industries that are closely related to people's lives, such as clothing, agriculture, and medicine. It runs through the industry, the middle, and the downstream, and finally forms a complete ecosystem. The blockchain's non-tamperable nature makes it a natural value attribute. However, Mo Bing believes that many public chain projects are currently doing network, and have not opened up the physical world. Although the Internet giants have arranged in the blockchain, they mostly lay the foundation for the blockchain technology of existing applications, so they are relatively centralized, and it is difficult to guarantee the absolute authenticity of the data. From its own advantages, Walton Chain uses sensor chips to open the data uplink interface and exchange data on the chain. This process perfectly eliminates human factors and establishes the value Internet of Things that Walton Chain pursues. ". Technical realization Usually the blockchain + IoT ecology data is a single ecology, that is, the ecological regions are separated, different fields build their own data ecology around their own data, or build their own blockchain architecture, even the chain is different Structure different technical systems. Paying attention to the islanding of data, the primary task of the Walton chain is to communicate data. Walton chain uses software and hardware integration, data customization contract model, cross-chain technology and Walton chain WPoC consensus mechanism to achieve data integration, verification and storage of data between different sub-chains. This can achieve the connection of different data sources, and can achieve a wide flow of data. Firstly, the data feature is used to extract the hash fingerprint or the index to store the Walton chain main chain, so that when searching the data of the Walton chain main chain in the future, the cross-chain indexing mechanism can quickly find the required data, and cross The data of the chain can quickly verify its authenticity; in addition, the cross-chain exchange certificate, based on the account of the atomic exchange of the pass, is used to record each of the Walton chain pass and the sub-chain pass or the pass-through Pen transaction. Specifically, in the production process, the hash fingerprint is extracted through the underlying data link, and the hash value is extracted out of the sub-chain or the parent chain to reduce the workload. The same is true in the midstream circulation. In the downstream consumption link, the hash value is compared to know whether the data has been replaced or not. Mo Bing gave an example: "We have combined the RFID chip with the blockchain and independently developed a new data-winding system. Taking liquor production as an example, there are many data that users care about in the production process, such as temperature and humidity, Contaminant content, etc., usually manufacturers use a variety of sensors to monitor production data, our technology can directly upload production data to the blockchain through the data collection unit. When the liquor is bottled, the device can automatically block the blockchain. The relevant production data retained on the data is extracted and stored in the RFID chip. The chip contains a fixed ID. This ID introduces all the hash values of the production link, and is closely associated with the bottle. In the circulation link, each time the RFID chip enters the library, its chain layer and the chip will have data interaction. Finally, in the consumption link, the user can scan the hash fingerprint in the chip through the RFID reader. Look at the entire chain of data on the blockchain. Throughout the production, distribution, and consumption links, we are a small chip. Therefore, the biggest difference between Walton and other projects is the inclusion of two closed loops of software and hardware. This kind of scheme completely eliminates human interference in the production and circulation, so it can get the most real data and generate value. In the future, we may do accurate big data analysis on this basis. Including consumer behavior analysis, user portraits, etc., to expand our ecological value system. ” After this, multi-chain communication and data fusion are realized, and the “black box” operation of the traditional communication data acquisition mode is realized. Users or enterprises in the ecosystem do not have to consider whether the IoT device has access to the network or can access it. And what protocol to communicate with, etc., but consider what data is needed, what to do, how to show it to others, and so on. 5G era to win business opportunities Although in the past year, anti-counterfeiting traceability is very close to the landing scene, over time, the numerous intermediate circulation links have caused this proposition to become somewhat illusory and even once suspected. However, the Walton chain did not give up this scene. Mo Bing said that the price of the goods has become the demand of most people, so to ensure that the products are authentic, can only be solved by traceability. “Consumers have the right to know which manufacturer to consume and which circulation to go through, so this is definitely not a false proposition. However, the intermediate circulation is indeed a fact, and there is also great difficulty in getting through the circulation. The Star Link is doing the first step to get through the production and consumption links, and not to intervene in the circulation link for the time being. We have the ability to do so, the data of the production link is in the chain, and the user can match the real data recorded in the production link in the consumption link. The goods are transferred in the circulation link, the user will know that the goods are fake because they can not find the real data of the production link, but the user is not aware of which link is being transferred. However, it is enough to ensure that consumers can know to buy. Whether it is real or fake. Therefore, the establishment of anti-counterfeiting traceability in the whole process is a long process. In the future, we will gradually develop the circulation link and gradually move towards the goal of opening the whole process of commodity circulation. “Mo Bing said. Solved the problem of applicable scenarios, communication progress is also a big business opportunity for the development of Walton chain. On December 6, 2018, the three major operators obtained the nationwide 5G low-frequency band test frequency license, which means that China's 5G is a step closer to formal commercial use. At that time, the upcoming speeches of the 5G era swept over and became the biggest expectation. In the world of value IoT, the Walton chain acts like a window connecting the physical world and the blockchain world. Then the blockchain + Internet of Things model, which is extremely dependent on the network, may set off a gust of wind in the upcoming 5G era. After 5G development, the channel width will be greatly expanded, and massive data can be quickly accessed interactively. For the Walton chain, the hash fingerprint shared on the blockchain will greatly speed up the transmission of data and reduce the original consensus time. Moreover, after the bandwidth is increased, the rapid interaction of massive data and the rapid consensus operation of the books due to network limitations will also be realized one by one. Mo Bing suggested that the enhancement of computing power can increase a lot of collaborative operations, and data commercialization can be well applied. "So 5G develops, for blockchain and Internet of Things, I think the biggest impact lies in the calculation of each sensor. The capability will be greatly enhanced. The communication network will have a wide channel, and the distributed calculation and fast consensus of the blockchain can be realized. Therefore, the direct data-linking mode of sensor data will become more and more popular, and the data transmission in the form of manual intervention will be realized. And data sharing will be less and less." It can be seen that with the development of 5G technology, Walton chain will also usher in a greater development prospect.
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Crypto Mining Difficulty 101 - Everything You Need to Know
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